3.8 Further reading

  • Ord, Fildes, and Kourentzes (2017) provides further discussion of simple benchmark forecasting methods.
  • A review of forecast evaluation methods is given in Hyndman and Koehler (2006), looking at the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches. This is the paper that introduced the MASE as a general-purpose forecast accuracy measure.


Ord, J Keith, Robert Fildes, and Nikolaos Kourentzes. 2017. Principles of Business Forecasting. 2nd ed. Wessex Press Publishing Co.

Hyndman, Rob J, and Anne B Koehler. 2006. “Another Look at Measures of Forecast Accuracy.” International Journal of Forecasting 22: 679–88.