7.9 Further reading

  • Two articles by Ev Gardner (Gardner 1985; Gardner 2006) provide a great overview of the history of exponential smoothing, and its many variations.
  • A full book treatment of the subject providing the mathematical details is given by Hyndman et al. (2008).


Gardner, Everette S. 1985. “Exponential Smoothing: The State of the Art.” Journal of Forecasting 4 (1): 1–28.

Gardner, Everette S. 2006. “Exponential Smoothing: The State of the Art — Part II.” Interantional Journal of Forecasting 22: 637–66.

Hyndman, Rob J, Anne B Koehler, J Keith Ord, and Ralph D Snyder. 2008. Forecasting with Exponential Smoothing: The State Space Approach. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://www.exponentialsmoothing.net.