6.9 Further reading

A detailed modern discussion of SEATS and X11 decomposition methods is provided by Dagum and Bianconcini (2016). Cleveland et al. (1990) introduced STL, and still provides the best description of the algorithm. For a discussion of forecasting using STL, see Theodosiou (2011).


Dagum, Estela Bee, and Silvia Bianconcini. 2016. Seasonal Adjustment Methods and Real Time Trend-Cycle Estimation: Springer.

Cleveland, Robert B, William S Cleveland, Jean E McRae, and Irma J Terpenning. 1990. “STL: A Seasonal-Trend Decomposition Procedure Based on Loess.” Journal of Official Statistics 6 (1): 3–73.

Theodosiou, Marina. 2011. “Forecasting Monthly and Quarterly Time Series Using STL Decomposition.” International Journal of Forecasting 27 (4): 1178–95.